Zuleima Caballero, Ph.D.


  • Form an interdisciplinary research group for the study of tropical diseases prevalent in our country.
  • Obtain a greater knowledge of them and thus provide effective responses to the affected areas.

Academic training


2009-2014 Doctorate in Sciences – University of São Paulo (Institute of Biomedical Sciences).

2004-2006 Master’s Degree in Science – University of São Paulo (Institute of Biomedical Sciences).

1997-2002 Degree in Biology focused on microbiology and parasitology University of Panama.     

Professional experience

2014-current                                       INDICASAT AIP                                     Panama

  • Researcher in parasitology and molecular biology.
  • Project management of a study examining seroprevalence and genetic characterization of gondii in pregnant women, newborns, domestic and wild animal in Panama.

2009-2014                                                University of São Paulo                      Brazil

  • PhD thesis title: Origin, evolution and phylogenetic relationships of proline racemase homologues in Trypanosoma species.
  • Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi TcIII and phylogenetic relationships among TcI isolates from different regions of America.
  • Novel molecular markers for the study of genetic diversity among species that make up the different groups of the Trypanosomatidae family.
  • Characterization of proline racemase in species of the subgenus Duttonella (species type vivax).

2004-2007                             University of São Paulo                            Brazil 

  • Master’s thesis title: Influence of cruzi TcI, TcII and Z3 groups for the immunodiagnosis of Chagas’ disease in Brazil and Panama.
  • Evaluation of serological tests for the identification of cruzi infection and cross-reactivity analysis with T. rangeli and Leishmania sp.
  • Phylogenetic relationships among rangeli isolates from different regions of Latin America.


  1. Zuleima Caballero E., Ricardo Correa, Marilda S Nascimento, Alcibiades Villarreal, Alejandro Llanes, Norival Kesper JR. High sensitivity and reproducibility of in house ELISAs using different genotypes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasite Immunology. 2019 March 25: e12627.
  2. Ricardo Correa, Lorena Coronado, Zuleima Caballero, Paula Faral, Carlos Robello and Carmenza Spadafora. Extracellular vesicles carrying lactate dehydrogenase induce suicide in increased population density of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Scientific Reports. 2019 March; 9(1):5042.
  3. Nicole M. Tayler, Cristopher A. Boya, Liuris Herrera, Jamie Moy, Michelle Ng, Laura Pineda, Alejandro Almanza, Sara Rosero, Lorena M. Coronado, Ricardo Correa, Ricardo Santamaría, Zuleima Caballero, Armando A. Durant-Archibold, Kevin J. Tidgewell, Marcy J. Balunas, William H. Gerwick, Alida Spadafora, Marcelino Gutiérrez and Carmenza Spadafora. Analysis of the antiparasitic and anticancer activity of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L. ARECACEAE) from the natural reserve of Punta Patiño, Darien. PLOS/ONE. 2019 April; 14(4): e0214193.
  4. Claudia Rengifo-Herrera, Edwin Pile, Anabel García, Alexander Pérez, Dimas Pérez, Felicia K. Nguyen, Valli de la Guardia, Rima Mcleod, and Zuleima Caballero. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama. 2017 March 24, 9.
  5. Caballero ZC, Costa-Martins AG, Ferreira RC, P Alves JM, Serrano MG, Camargo EP, Buck GA, Minoprio P, G Teixeira MM. Phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Apr 12;8:222.
  6. Caballero ZC, Sousa OE, Marques WP, Saez-Alquezar A, Umezawa ES. Evaluation of serological tests to identify Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans and determine cross-reactivity with Trypanosoma rangeli and Leishmania spp. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007 Aug;14(8):1045-9.
  7. Maia Da Silva F, Junqueira AC, Campaner M, Rodrigues AC, Crisante G, Ramirez LE, Caballero ZC, Monteiro FA, Coura JR, Añez N, Teixeira MM. Comparative phylogeography of Trypanosoma rangeli and Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)supports a long coexistence of parasite lineages and their sympatric vectors. Mol Ecol. 2007 Aug;16(16):3361-73.